- Having more enterovirus infections in early childhood increases risk for celiac disease.
- Adenovirus infections do not show this association.
Why this matters
- Gut infections in childhood could compromise the mucosal barrier and allow antigen transfer.
- Another study implicated rotavirus infection in celiac risk.
- Retrospective studies on enteroviruses and adenoviruses have yielded mixed findings.
- Enterovirus was more common in children who then developed celiac disease antibodies:
- aOR, 1.49 (95% CI, 1.07-2.06; P=.02).
- Samples with more virus (>100,000 copies/μL), more infectious episodes, or from chronic infection (>2 months) were linked to higher risk, with respective aORs (95% CIs):
- 2.11 (1.24-3.60; P=.01);
- 1.27 (0.87-1.86; P=.21); and
- 2.16 (1.16-4.04; P=.02).
- Enteroviruses A (P=.03) and B (P=.003) were linked to celiac risk, but C and D were not.
- Adenoviruses showed no association.
- Nested case-control study, Norwegian birth cohort 2001-2007.
- Children with celiac risk variant matched to controls.
- Stool samples analyzed for ages 3-36 months.
- Celiac antibodies assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months, then annually.
- Funding: Research Council of Norway; Norwegian Coeliac Society; others.
- 10-year (or less) follow-up might have been too short to detect all celiac cases.
- Type 1 diabetes was original study focus.